教育新闻

  2015年英语(一)的阅读理解Part A部分与2014年相比没有太大改变,考生在考试过程中应继续秉承正确的方法——先读题目,了解题目的要求,再有目的地回到原文中找正确答案。

  2015研究生入学统一考试英语一试题答案+解析

  Text 4 的文章整体来讲不算难,如果对Murdoch (默多克)传媒帝国下属的news of the world (《世界新闻报》)的telephone hacking(电话窃听)丑闻有所了解的话,这篇文章做起来应该是得心应手的,所以多了解背景知识对我们的英语考试有很大帮助。

  Section 1 Use of English

  第36题,According to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by_____. 问Elisabeth因为什么感到生气。第一段和第二段都是围绕Elisabeth的话展开的,第一段有一个明显的提示词because of,这句话就非常清晰的解释了Elisabeth生气的原因,Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the only “sorting mechanism” in society should be profit and the market。(诚信崩塌是因为公众都接受这样一个观点:社会的“分拣机制”应该是能盈利的和能做交易的)。与A选项对应,the consequences of the current sorting mechanism。(现行分拣机制的后果)。其实就是说Elisabeth主要是因为“dearth of integrity”或“integrity had collapsed”生气,而这正是现行“sorting mechanism”的结果。

  Directions:Readthe following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank andmark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  第37题,It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that______. 可以从第3段推断出什么。A. Glenn Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime. (Glenn Mulcaire可能否认电话窃听是犯罪)。文章中只提到他是电话窃听案的关键人物,曾受雇于《世界新闻报》,没有提及他对案件的态度。B选项more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking。(更多的记者会被指控有电话窃听罪行)。在第3段中有多处提及或暗示这点:Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people。(已知进行过电话窃听的记者多达5500人)。This is hacking on an industrial scale…(这种窃听行为已达到行业规模…)Others await trial。(其他人在候审)。

  Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1 a study published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has 2 。

  所以B选项正确。C选项Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge. (Andy Coulson应该被宣判无罪)。文中提到Andy Coulson的前任Rebekah Brooks被宣告无罪,没有提及Andy是否会判无罪,而且后面提及道德缺失的广泛问题依然存在,——套用我国媒体一句话:恐怕会严肃处理。D选项,phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions。(电话窃听在某种特定场合会被接受)。浏览原文,根本没有accept这个词或表示accept的词,另外电话窃听被指责为道德沦丧的代表,文中不会有提及什么情况下接受电话窃听,排除。

  The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects which 4 pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both 5 。

  第38题,The author believes that Rebekah Brooks’s defense _______. 作者认为Rebekah Brooks的辩护是怎样的。根据人名Rebekah Brooks定位到第4段,根据defence这个词可以定位到最后一句,The core of her successful defense was that she knew nothing。(她辩护获胜的核心是——她什么都不知道)。答案中[A] revealed a cunning personality。(揭示了她狡黠的本性)。A排除,因为这种推脱责任的言论不能说是狡黠。[B] centered on trivial issues。(集中在琐事上)。B排除,文中提及的员工工作的所作所为不是琐事。[C] was hardly convincing. (很难令人信服)。正确,作为一个高层管理人员,对于下属干了什么,什么都不知道,不负任何责任,从而获得无罪宣判是十分荒谬的,作者也是用了一种嘲讽的语气。[D]was part of a conspiracy. (是密谋中的一部分)。D项排除,离题很远。

  While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. As co-author of the study James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego says, "Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who 8 our kin."

  第39题, The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows______. 问题的中心词是collective doctrine,根据中心词定位到第5段第3行,…the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit…(普遍观点社会分拣机制应该是盈利的),这句话考生如果没有相关知识会很费解,作者也考虑到了读者一般也难理解,可以继续往后看,后面作者就用通俗语言解释了The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business-friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation。句子貌似很长,其实很简单,就是形容词的罗列,看懂形容词就可以了。总之就是新闻语言要能吸引眼球,能赚钱。作为对比作者又说Words degraded to the margin have been justice, fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability。(公平、宽容、负责、有度的新闻语言被边缘化了)。这很明显就是在说的价值观发生了畸变。那么A选项“generally distorted values”是正确的。

  The team also developed a "friendship score" which can predict who will be your friend based on their genes。

  第40题,Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph? (最后一段暗示了什么)。最后一段分两部分,第一部分是第一、第二句,第二部分是第三句。第一部分的结构为:the purpose of …was not…it was to…(…的目的不是…而是…)。把结构分析出来,意思就好理解了,在was not后面的短语promote reader understanding,to be fair in what was written,to betray any common humanity,(总之都是好的方面);在 it was to后面的是ruin lives(不好的方面)。因此可以说现在的媒体为了利益道德丧失。第二部分是用Brooks的例子指出媒体高层管理者对于报道是否道德的不负责任。整段话都围绕媒体道德的问题展开,因此C选项正确moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper。(最后一段作者暗示了在编辑报刊时具有道德意识很重要)。

  The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10 , as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically similar friends 13 than "functional kinship" of being friends with 14 !

  One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help 16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major 17 factor。

  The findings do not simply corroborate people’s 18 to befriend those of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to 20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects。

  1 A what B why C how D when

  2 A defended B concluded C withdrawn D advised

  3 A for B with C by D on

  4 A separated B sought C compared D connected

  5 A tests B objects C samples D examples

  6 A insignificant B unexpected C unreliable D incredible

  7 A visit B miss C know D seek

  8 A surpass B influence C favor D resemble

  9 A again B also C instead D thus

  10 A Meanwhile B Furthermore C Likewise D Perhaps

  11 A about B to C from D like

  12 A limit B observe C confuse D drive

  13 A according to B rather than C regardless of D along with

  14 A chances B responses C benefits D missions

  15 A faster B slower C later D earlier

  16 A forecast B remember C express D understand

  17 A unpredicted B contributory C controllable D disruptive

  18 A tendency B decision C arrangement D endeavor

  19 A political B religious C ethnic D economic

  20 A see B show C prove D tell

  答案解析

  1、A what 本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学院报告上联合发表的研究成果。第一个空考察表语从句的引导词。

  2、B concluded 本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学院报告上联合发表的研究成果。第二个空为针对从句谓语进行的词义考察。

  3、D on 本句前半句的句意是:这项研究是一个基于1932个独特个体的基因组广谱分析。考察Conduct on词组,进行。从句意为:它对成对儿的非亲缘朋友和陌生人进行比较。

  4、C compared 比较,根据上下文及后一句的same知道,比较为最佳。

  5、C samples 词义题,样本,C为最佳选项。

  6、A insignificant 词义题,1%,以及后面的not so转折,判断,A insignificant不显著,为最佳选项。

  7、C know 句意为:一些人虽然并不认识他们第四代的表亲,但他们选择的朋友却和这些亲戚颇有相似之处。

  8、D resemble 词义题,和上一个空形成转折。

  9、B also 上下文逻辑题,发现了,还发现了。Also为最佳选项。

  10、D Perhaps 结合上下文:这一现象很难解释,后面接原因,原因“可能”是……最符合文章大意。

  11、B to 介词题,意为:就像这个科研团队所发现的,这个因素不仅把我们带到详细的环境中来,更有一些深层次的影响。

  12、D drive 词义题,根据上下文,对我们产生影响,驱使我们……drive为最佳选项。

  13、B rather than 逻辑题,基因上相似的,功能上相似的,二者对立不能同时存在,rather than不是…而是最符合。

  14、C benefits 跟“功能”搭配,选个褒义词,带来好处的,最佳。

  15、A faster 词义题,根据后半句解释,这就是为什么“picked pace”加速,这里只能选faster,一些比另外一些进化得更快,符合文意。

  16、D understand 词义题,这个研究可以帮助我们理解一个事实。

  17、B contributory 本句意为:社会环境是最主要的一个因素。Contributory贡献,最佳。

  18、A tendency 结合文章主旨,选择基因相似的人做朋友是普遍现象,tendency趋势倾向最符合。

  19、C ethnic 同义替换,基因背景相似,种族的,民族的,最符合。

  20、A see 本句意为:尽管所有的研究对象都取自欧洲血统,研究者也花心思确保了所有(用于比对的)朋友和陌生人也源自该血统中的同一支系。

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted kings don’t abdicate, they die in their sleep. But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, dies the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the uniting is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles?

  The Spanish case previous arguments both for and against monarchy when public opinion is particularly. Polarized, as it was following the end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and “embody” a spirit of national unity。

  It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs continuing popularity as heads of states. And so, the Middle East expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region is the world, with 10 kingdoms not counting Vatican city and Andorra. But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respect public figure。

  Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside, symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomes Piketty and other ecumenists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states. The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Prince and princess have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image。

  While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to strive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example。

  It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-healed) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service—as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings of republicans, who are the monarchy’s worst enemies。

  21、according to the first two paragraphs, king Juan Carl of span

  [A] used to enjoy high public support

  [B] was unpopular among European royals

  [C] ended his reign in embarrassment

  [D] eased his relationship with his rivals

  22、monarchs are kept as head of state in Europe mostly

  [A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

  [B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

  [C] to give voters more public figures to look up to

  [D] due to their everlasting political embodiment

  23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?

  [A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth。

  [B] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families。

  [C] The role of the nobility in modern democracies。

  [D] The nobility’s adherence to their privileges。

  24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles

  [A] takes a tough line on political issues。

  [B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised。

  [C] takes republicans as his potential allies。

  [D] fails to adapt himself to his future role。

  25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

  [A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

  [B] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

  [C] Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

  [D] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

  解析:

  21 D ended his reign in embarrassment

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词King Juan Carlos of Spain 定位到第一段第一和第二句。But embarrassing scandals…have forced him to eat his words and stand down. 此处stand down译为放弃席位。因此D ended his reign in embarrassment是原文内容的同义替换。

  22 A owing to their undoubted and respectable status

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词定位到第三段第一句it is this apparent …that explains …as heads of state。和第三句But unlike their absolutist…most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for ...respected public figure. 绝大多数皇室家族使得选民避免了寻找受人尊敬的公众人物的麻烦。因此A owing to their undoubted and respectable status是原文内容的同义替换。

  23 B the role of the nobility in modern democracies

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词定位到第四段最后一句话…it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states 奇怪的是有钱的贵族家庭仍然处于现代民主国家的核心地位。因此B the role of the nobility in modern democracies是原文内容的同义替换。

  24 B fails to change his lifestyle as advised

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词”have most of fear”定位到第六段,Charles定位到最后一段的地二句Charles 后面who引导定语从句who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and …world因此B fails to change his lifestyle as advised是原文内容的同义替换。

  25 C Carlos,a Lesson for All European Monarchs

  此题属于全文主旨题。

  着眼全文,通篇都在围绕monarchs展开。第一段由Carlos引出当今君主制面临的危机。因此Carlos,a Lesson for All European Monarchs是全文内容的精确概括。

  Text 2

  Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest。

  California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies。

  The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants。

  They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone-- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect’s purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or pocketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing,” meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier。

  But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now。

  26. The Supreme Court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to

  [A] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant。

  [B] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized。

  [C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents。

  [D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones。

  27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of

  [A] tolerance。

  [B] indifference。

  [C] disapproval。

  [D] cautiousness。

  28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone content is comparable to

  [A] getting into one’s residence。

  [B] handing one’s historical records。

  [C] scanning one’s correspondences。

  [D] going through one’s wallet。

  29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that

  [A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed。

  [B] the court is giving police less room for action。

  [C] phones are used to store sensitive information。

  [D] citizens’ privacy is not effective protected。

  30.Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that

  (A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly。

  (B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution。

  (C)California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution。

  (D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered。

  T2

  26 答案B check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized

  解析:细节题。根据自然段定位原则,定位到首段。根据题干关键词supreme court,whether精确定位到第一段最后一句whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone….,与选项进行对应,即为B在不授权的情况下检查嫌疑人的电话信息。注意A选项应是search contents。

  27 答案 C disapproval

  解析:态度题。根据题干California’s argument定位到第二段最后一句及第三段首句,这些句子中提到hard… recklessly modest…等负向词,表达的是负面态度。看选项属于负面的就是disapproval。A 容忍,B冷漠是典型错误,D粗心。

  28 答案A getting into one’s residence

  解析:细节题。题干问:作者认为搜索电话薄就相当于什么?根据段落界定原则定位到第四段转折处,提到But exploring one’s smart phone is more like entering his or her home。与选项对应,A中的residence对应home,是原文的同意替换。注意D选项不是作者的观点,不能将文中人物观点当作作者观点。

  29 答案D citizens’ privacy is not effective protected

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